Canku Ota
(Many Paths)
An Online Newsletter Celebrating Native America
African-Native Americans : We are still here : A Photo Exhibit
Many people believe racial and ethnic groups in North America have always lived as separately as they do now. However, segregation was neither practical nor preferable when people who were not native to this continent began arriving here.
A Warrior in Two Worlds Eli Parker
Ely Parker was a Seneca chief, a legal scholar, an engineer, a Civil War hero, and a Cabinet-level commissioner -- all by the age of 40. At first glance, his story appears to be one of success and triumph.
Cheyenne participants in the battle of the Little Big Horn
Chief Pontiac
On June 14, 1671, the Sieur de St. Lusson (in the presence of three Jesuits, 16 lay Frenchmen and several hundred Indians) took possession for France of "Lake Superior, Lake Huron and all contiguous countries, streams, lakes and rivers in all their length and breadth bounded by the North and South (Pacific) seas."
Chief Washakie
The date of Washakie’s birth is unknown, but it probably occurred during the first few years of the 19th century. His father was a Flathead and his mother was from one of the Shoshone tribal groups, probably a Lemhi. The future Shoshone chief was named Pina Quanah (Smell of Sugar) when he was born.
Columbus, My Enemy
In May 1497, the Taino ruler Guarionex was enmeshed in a potentially disastrous political situation. Five years had passed since the strange and dangerous Spaniards first appeared on the northeast shore of Hispaniola.
Cornplanter (c.1736-1836) was a great war captain of the Seneca nation, a member of the Iroquois Confederacy. The American Revolution split this Confederacy, destroying its New York bulwark against the whites.

Discovering Lewis & Clark: The Faces of Sacagawea
"There is no known image of Sacagawea that was made of her during her lifetime, so no one can be sure what she really looked like. Yet because the Shoshone woman has been the subject of so many sculptures and paintings, especially since about 1900, we have a rich heritage of artists' conceptions to contemplate." Visit Discovering Lewis & Clark to explore a dozen artistic renderings of Sacagawea, but don't miss the "interpreter" link embedded in the intro, which leads to an excellent three-page Sacagawea bio titled "The Interpreter's Wife."

Dull Knife
The life of Dull Knife, the Cheyenne, is a true hero tale. Simple, child-like yet manful, and devoid of selfish aims, or love of gain, he is a pattern for heroes of any race.
Elizabeth Peratrovich - Women in Alaska's History-
Elizabeth Wanamaker Peratrovich was born July 4, 1911, in Petersburg, Alaska. Her Tlingit name was Kaaxgal.aat. She was of the Lukaax.adi clan of the Raven moiety.

Idaho Public TV: The Journey of Sacagawea
"More mountains, lakes and streams bear her name than any other North American woman." Although the entire one-hour public television special is not available online, you can watch seven RealPlayer snippets of The Journey of Sacagawea, a Idaho Public TV production. Other reasons to visit include the commentary from historians and descendants such as David Borlaug, President of the Lewis and Clark Heritage Foundation: "She simply was a great presence. An Indian woman with a child on her back for all these other Indian Tribes to take note of. This could not be a war party, it had to be a party of peace".

Idaho Stateman: Sacajawea
This multimedia, seven-chapter picture book is the story of Sacajawea told by her people, the Lemhi-Shoshone Indians, and my pick of the day. "Some of her tribe´s interpretations of her story differ from long-accepted facts of the story. They are presented as accurate in the sense that they reflect the oral history and opinions of the Lemhi people." Highlights include audio clips from her tribesmen, a glossary of Lemhi words, and three printable handouts for the classroom: review questions, classroom activities, and a word scramble.

Ishi The Last Yahi
In August 1911, Ishi, the last surviving member of the Yahi Indian tribe, walked out of the foothills near Mount Lassen
Jim Thorpe Home Page
Describing Jim Thorpe as a great athlete would be doing him a severe injustice. A better description would be calling him the greatest athlete of the 20th Century. This label will probably be debated by many, but Thorpe's accomplishments speak louder than words.
In Honor of Alfonso Ortiz
Alfonso Ortiz, one of the few American Indians to provide anthropology with a view from the "inside out," is remembered for his numerous contributions at the University of New Mexico, first as a student, then as an esteemed professor.
King Ferdinand's letter to the Taino/Arawak Indians
Below is a letter which King Ferdinand sent along with Columbus on his second voyage to Haiti. It was to be communicated to the Taino/Arawak Indians.
Kiowa Drawings in the National Anthropological Archives
The Smithsonian’s collections of Kiowa drawings include work of art on buffalo hide and more recent examples on paper, a medium that Kiowa artists adopted after it became widely available in the late nineteenth century.
Lewis and Clark
With help from the Library of Congress--our nation's library, I have created a virtual exhibit of their incredible journey filled with rare maps, original letters and colorful illustrations-- many found only in the collections of the Library of Congress. We recently have added rare documents from the National Archives to this exhibit.
Little Wolf
If any people ever fought for liberty and justice, it was the Cheyennes. If any ever demonstrated their physical and moral courage beyond cavil, it was this race of purely American heroes, among whom LittleWolf was a leader.
MASSASOIT "Great Leader" also known as OUSAMEQUIN "Yellow Feather" (and variants of that name after 1632). Born approximately 1585; died 1660.
Mohawk Skywalkers
Canadian Mohawks from the Caughnawaga Indian Reserve on the St. Lawrence near Montreal truly are skywalkers. These descendants of one of the main tribes of the historic Iroquois Confederacy took readily to working on aboveground high-steel construction, in particular on the giant skyscrapers that soared over New York City during the twentieth century.

Montana Kids: Sacagawea
For elementary and middle-school students, Montana Kids provides a single-page illustrated Sacagawea bio, with a link to the U.S. Mint page about the Sacagawea golden dollar coin. "In 2000, Sacagawea's face was minted onto a dollar coin, following in Susan B. Anthony's footsteps. The coin depicts the Shoshone woman Sacagawea, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, carrying her son Jean Baptiste Charbonneau.."

The Moundbuilders
The Mississippians, as they are known, erected dozens--perhaps thousands--of earthworks across the Delta and the southeast when Europeans were living through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

National Geographic Magazine: Sacagawea
"What we know about her: She was a teenage mother and a valued interpreter for Lewis and Clark. What we don't know about her: Almost everything else." To read the complete text of this National Geographic article for high-school students and grownups, click on the full article link just below the intro quote. Writer Margaret Talbot follows Sacagawea's life as it is recorded in the journals of Lewis and Clark, and combats common misconceptions with help from Sacagawea expert Amy Mossett and historian Carolyn Gilman.

The Original Peacemakers
The original Americans, like all human communities, were people of both peace and war, but modern America has refused to put a realistic face on the Indian experience. Images of Native American history are distorted by white guilt, romanticism, commercialization, and basic lack of information
Pomp - The True Story
He’s cute, he’s sleepy, and he’s in your pocket. He’s Pomp—the napping little baby on the new Sacagawea dollar coin.
PreColumbian Arawaks
Columbus did not discover a lost or unknown land. There was a flourishing civilization of native Americas. The primary group was the Arawak/Taino Indians.
Red Cloud
As a warrior and a statesman, Red Cloud's success in confrontations with the United States government marked him as one of the most important Lakota leaders of the nineteenth century.
Red Rock Elementary - Red Cloud
Red Cloud Links from Red Rock Elementary School
Sacagawea is historically known as the Shoshone Indian woman who accompanied the Corps of Discovery as an interpreter.
Sarah Winnemucca (to find the bio of Sarah, click on Biographies, alphabetical, W)
Sarah Winnemucca's birth coincided with the beginning of an era of dramatic historical changes for her people, changes in which she would play an important and often thankless role. She worked throughout her life to communicate between her people and the white people, to defend Paiute rights, and to create understanding.
Send Sarah to Washington
Every state in the union is allowed two statues of its noteworthy people in the Capitol in Washington, DC. Nevada has only one so far, of Senator Pat McCarran. There is a growing movement to make Sarah Winnemucca Nevada's second statue. A bill has been introduced in the Legislature and is gaining support.
Seth Eastman: Painting the Dakota
Seth Eastman: Painting the Dakota is a story of art crossing the boundaries of culture and time. Learn about artist and military officer Seth Eastman's life and the traditions of the Dakota he depicted, through Eastman's artwork, essays, and interviews with Dakota elders.
Most historians credit Sequoyah, the most famous Cherokee, with the invention of the syllabary. However, some oral historians contend that the written Cherokee language is much, much older. But even if there was an ancient written Cherokee language, it was lost to the Cherokees until Sequoyah developed the syllabary. The development of the syllabary was one of the events which was destined to have a profound influence on our tribe’s history. This extraordinary achievement marks the only known instance of an individual creating a totally new system of writing.
Sioux participants in the battle of the Little Big Horn
See who was there
Thomas Banyacya Hopi Traditional Elder
My name is Banyacya. I am a member of the Hopi sovereign nation. Traditional Hopi follow the spiritual path that was given to us by Massau'u the Great Spirit.
USA: Geronimo, His own story
The main body of this hypertext comes from a number of USIA-publications An Outline of American History, An Outline of the American Economy, An Outline of American Government, and An Outline of American Literature. The text of these Outlines has not been changed, but they have been enriched with hypertext-links to relevant documents, original essays, other Internet sites, and to other Outlines. A number of contributors have prepared additional texts and links for the project. And this project will grow als long as we find new texts and volunteers who are willing to contribute. You can help this WWW-project in collective authoring by contributing texts or by sponsoring.
Who Were the Mound-Builders?
Most people are aware of the great civilizations of Egypt and Mexico, but few, realize there were great civilizations in North America as well.
Words of Tecumseh
"The way, the only way to stop this evil is for the red man to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was first, and should be now, for it was never divided."
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